Product specification: Wheat, type 1, PH78, 13% maximum moisture, 1% maximum foreign matter and impurities, 0.5% maximum grains damaged by insects, 0.5% maximum grain damaged by high temperatures, moldy and heat-damaged and up to 1.5% of broken, hollow kernels and smaller wheat grains;
Unit of measurement/currency: metric ton. The average is originally calculated in Real, but it is also released in US dollar. It is a simple conversion of the value in Real to dollars – commercial exchange rate, asking price at 4:30 p.m. (Brasilia time);
Delivery:  values refer to trades in the wholesale market (between companies), regarding grains stored in warehouses in producing regions (no freight included);
Reference regions in Paraná State: West, North, Southwest and Ponta Grossa;
Reference regions in Rio Grande do Sul State: Passo Fundo, Ijuí, Santa Rosa and Santa Maria;
Weighting basis of regions: arithmetic average of the collected trades;
Statistical treatment: The daily sample is subjected to two statistical procedures: standard deviation (it is accepted values between the intervals of two standard deviations up and down in relation to the sample average) and analysis of the variation coefficient;
Discount rate: Term prices converted into cash prices by discounting the NPR (Rural Promissory Note) rate;
Taxes: no ICMS (tax) included; 
Frequency: daily;
Historic: since 2004;
Agents consulted for the survey: sellers (cooperatives/companies), purchasers (mills, processors and traders) and stockbrokers; 
Other Cepea surveys for the wheat market: prices paid to growers (over-the-counter market), price of flours and wheat bran. 
Source: Cepea




Geraldo Sant'Ana de Camargo Barros, Ph.D
Professor titular Esalq/USP; coordenador científico do Cepea


Chief Researcher
Lucilio Rogerio Alves, Dr.
Professor do Depto de Economia, Administração e Sociologia


Research Assistants

Natália Correr Ré
André Sanches
Débora Kelen Pereira da Silva
Carolina Sales
Kaline Lacerda
Natália Guimarães Ribeiro
Paula Cruz
Thais Bragion Bertoloti